Volume 2, 2019
Parasitology and Carcinogenesis
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Life Sciences - Medicine|
|Published online||03 July 2019|
The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus as a group III or group I carcinogen
Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Pathological Processes, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 10 Lavrentiev Avenue, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
2 Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova Street, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
3 Center for the Study in Animal Science, ICETA, University of Porto, Rua de D. Manuel II, Apt 55142, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal
4 Centre for Parasite Immunology and Biology, Infectious Diseases Department, INSA, Rua Alexandre Herculano 321, 4000-055 Porto, Portugal
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 10 May 2019
Opisthorchiasis caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is one of the most common helminthic infections in the Russian Federation. The largest area affected by opisthorchiasis felinea occupies almost the entire territory of Western Siberia and extends to northern Kazakhstan and a part of the Ural region. Natural endemic regions of opisthorchiasis also exist in the European part of Russia, and in the regions of Western and Eastern Europe. According to the official statistics of the Russian Federation, up to 40 000 patients with opisthorchiasis are registered annually in the country.
Opisthorchiasis felinea affects the hepatobiliary system and causes serious liver disorders, including cancer of the biliary tract. Other parasitoses, opisthorchiasis viverrini and clonorchiasis, are widespread in the Southeast Asia and China. The causative agents of these diseases, liver flukes O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, are officially recognized as Group 1 biological carcinogens and are classified as the main risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma. O. felineus is included in Group 3 of biological carcinogens and is not officially considered carcinogenic to humans. Studies on the carcinogenic potential of this liver fluke and the epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma in the Russian Federation have started in earnest quite recently. Nevertheless, we have some evidence that infection with O. felineus leads to a precancerous state of the bile duct epithelium. This state, combined with additional risk factors, poses a real risk of cholangiocarcinoma. In our opinion, taking into consideration the accumulated facts, the classification of the carcinogenic potential of O. felineus requires revision. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics of the biology and epidemiology of this helminth as well as experimental data on opisthorchiasis felinea; this information might clarify the carcinogenicity of O. felineus to humans.
Key words: Cancer / Carcinogenic / Carcinogenesis / Carcinoma / Cell transition / Cercaria / Cholangiocellular carcinoma / Clonorchis / Cyprinidae / Epidemiology / Fish / Helminthiasis / Hepatocellular carcinoma / Liver flukes / Malignancy / Opisthorchiasis / Opisthorchis felineus / Pathogenesis / Risk / Sporocysts / Tumor
© M. Pakharukova et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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