Figure 1


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Canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. Simplified scheme of the canonical NF-κB pathway. Nomenclature: TNFα: tumor necrosis factor α; TNFR1: tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; IL-1: interleukin 1; ILR1: interleukin 1 receptor; LPS: lipopolysacharide; TLR4: toll-like receptor 4; IKK complex: IκB kinase enzyme complex to upregulate the NF-κB signaling; IκBα: IκB kinase 1 (IKK1); IκBβ: IκB kinase 2 (IKK2); IκBγ: IκB kinase gamma; NEMO: NF-kappa-B essential modulator, regulatory scaffolding protein; P: phosphorylated; Akt: protein kinase B (PBK); p65: NF-κB3 (RelA); c-Rel: proto-oncogene NF-κB transcription factor; p50: NF-κB1 (progenitor is p105). Canonical NF-κB-IKK-complex is the inactive cytoplasmic form, consisting out of IκBα, p65 and p50. The canonical NF-κB heterodimer is the active form entering into the nucleus consisting out of p65 and p50

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