Volume 2, 2019
Disruption of homeostasis-induced signaling and crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm “Epistemology of the origin of cancer”
|Number of page(s)||30|
|Section||Life Sciences - Medicine|
|Published online||01 October 2019|
Synopsis: Special Issue on “Disruption of signaling homeostasis induced crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm Epistemology of the origin of cancer”
Theodor-Billroth-Akademie®, Germany, USA
2 INCORE, International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor-Billroth-Academy®, Germany, USA
3 Department of Surgery, Carl-Thiem-Klinikum, Cottbus, Germany
4 Risk-Based Decisions Inc., Sacramento, CA, USA
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 10 September 2019
It is increasingly evident that carcinogenesis, in the vast majority of cancers, cannot be explained simply through an accumulation of somatic mutations, or epigenetics, the stem cell theory, or the Warburg effect. Here, decades of thinking based on incorrect assumptions has resulted in an incorrect hypothesis on the origin of cancer. Many papers studying DNA, genetics, RNA, miRNA, proteomics, and epigenetics have increased our understanding of biology. Our paradigm, though more complex, is more reliable and plausible. It states that cancer originates from a disruption of homeostasis. This essential biological phenomenon, homeostasis, maintains the interrelationships of various signaling pathways and induced crosstalk which modify cellular functions together with the interactions of surrounding cells and structures such that the equilibrium lies towards the optimal health of the organism. This Special Issue “Disruption of signaling homeostasis induced crosstalk in the carcinogenesis paradigm Epistemology of the origin of cancer” provides compelling evidence that carcinogenesis is explained by a six-step sequence of events for the vast majority of cancers. These six steps include, (1) a pathogenic stimulus followed by (2) chronic inflammation, from which develops (3) fibrosis with associated remodeling in the cellular microenvironment. From these changes a (4) pre-cancerous niche develops which triggers the deployment of (5) a chronic stress escape strategy, and when this fails to resolve, and (6) the transition of a normal cell to a cancer cell occurs. This paradigm provides opportunities to move away from a symptom-oriented understanding of cancer and is much closer to a cause-based understanding, which opens the door for early preventative strategies to mitigate cancer as a disease, and to interdict metastases. This is underpinned by the fact that an independent recently published proof of this paradigm showed how a stimulus trigger the proposed multi-sequence cascade of events as abrupt involution-induced chronic inflammation, followed by fibrosis with remodeling, which describes the pre-cancerous niche followed by hyperplasia, metaplasia, and cancer.
Key words: Akt / Aneuploidy / AP-2 / bcl-2 / BRCA / Cancer / Carcinogenesis / CD44 / Cell transition / CHK2 / Chronic inflammation / Crosstalk / Disruption / DNA / ECM / EGFR / Eicosanoid / Epidemiology / Epigenetics / FADS2 / Fibrosis / Genetics / Genomics / GLUT-4 / HBV / HCC / HCV / HETE / Homeostasis / IKK / JNK / Lipid / LOX / LOXL2 / LOXL3 / LTA4 / LTB4 / LTD4 / LTE4 / Lysyl oxidase / LXA4 / LXB4 / MaR1 / MaR2 / Metabolism / MicroRNA / MMP / mRNA / Microbiome / Morbid obesity / Mutation / NPD1 / p16 / p53 / p120 / Pathogenesis / PAX / PCN / PGG2 / PGH2 / PI3K / PPAR / Precancerous niche / Proteomics / PUFA / Radiation / Reproducibility / RvD1 / RvD2 / RvD3 / RvD4 / RvD5 / RvD6 / Signaling / SMT / Somatic mutation theory / SOX-2 / SPM / STAT3 / Stem cell / Targeting therapy / Technology / TGF / Warburg
© B.L.D.M. Brücher & I.S. Jamall, Published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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