Examples of synthesized quantum dots with their precursors, sizes and their respective synthesis processes.
|Quantum dot||Synthesis process||Size (nm)||Medium precursor||Application||References|
|CdSe||Bottom-up approach (hot-solution decomposition process)||~6 nm||Me2Cd, Se, TBP, TOPO, HPA||FRET||Peng et al. |
|Manna et al. |
|CdSe/ZnS||Bottom-up approach (hot-solution decomposition process)||4.5–5 nm||Me2Cd, Se, TOP, TOPO, HDA, (TMS)2S, Me2Zn||FRET||Hikmet et al. |
|PbS||Bottom-up approach (hot-solution decomposition process)||5 nm||PbO, OA, (TMS)2S||Photo-electronic devices||Bakueva et al. |
|ZnSe/ZnS||Vapour-phase method||1–1.9 nm||TOPO, diethyl zinc, L hexa-methyl-disilathiane, TBP||FRET, LEDs||Kim et al. [36, 65]|
|CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS||Hot solvent mixture (bottom-up approach)||~8.6 nm||TOPO, diethyl zinc, L hexa-methyldisilathiane, TBP, CdO:Se molar ratio of 1:5||Intra-cellular pH sensors||Liu et al. |
|C-QDs (Carbon quantum dots)||Hydrothermal (green material used as source)||4–6 nm||Banana peel waste||Bio imaging||Atchudan et al. |
|C-QDs (COC dots), sulfur doped with hydrophilic groups at the surface||Ultrasonication (other methods)||1–4 nm||Waste chimney oil||Sensors, bio-labeling, and ink||Das et al. |
|C-QDs (Carbon quantum dots)||Pyrolysis (heat synthesis)||6 nm||Finger-milletragi, CaCl2·2H2O, CuSO4·5H2O, Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Mn(NO3)2.6H2O, MgCl2·6H2O||Biosensor||Murugan et al. [40, 60]|
|Graphene QDs (colloidal)||Modified hummers method (heat and ultrasonic treatment)||2.9–3.6 nm||Graphene oxide sheets||HeLa cell line Cell nucleus (bio-imaging)/cellular imaging||Pan et al. [41, 62]|
|Boron-doped graphene quantum dots||Hydrothermal process (modified hummers process)||3–7 nm||Graphite rods, 0.1 M borax||Stem-cell imaging (bio-imaging), cellular imaging||Fan et al. [42, 43]|
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