Issue 
4open
Volume 2, 2019
Advances in Researches of Quaternion Algebras



Article Number  16  
Number of page(s)  7  
Section  Mathematics  Applied Mathematics  
DOI  https://doi.org/10.1051/fopen/2019014  
Published online  05 June 2019 
Research Article
Eigenvalues of matrices related to the octonions
^{1}
Departamento de Matemática and CMAUBI, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6201001 Covilhã, Portugal
^{2}
Departamento de Matemática, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004531 Coimbra, Portugal
^{*} Corresponding author: rserodio@ubi.pt
Received:
29
December
2018
Accepted:
20
April
2019
A pseudo real matrix representation of an octonion, which is based on two real matrix representations of a quaternion, is considered. We study how some operations defined on the octonions change the set of eigenvalues of the matrix obtained if these operations are performed after or before the matrix representation. The established results could be of particular interest to researchers working on estimation algorithms involving such operations.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 11R52 / 15A18
Key words: Octonions / Quaternions / Real matrix representations / Eigenvalues
© R. Serôdio et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1 Introduction
Due to nonassociativity, the real octonion division algebra is not algebraically isomorphic to a real matrix algebra. Despite this fact, pseudo real matrix representations of an octonion may be introduced, as in [1], through real matrix representations of a quaternion.
In this work, the left matrix representation of an octonion over , as called by Tian in [1], is considered. For the sake of completeness, some definitions and results, in particular on this pseudo representation, are recalled in Section 2.
Using the mentioned representation, results concerning eigenvalues of matrices related to the octonions are established in Section 3. Previous research on this subject, although not explicitly applying real matrix representations of a quaternion, can be seen in [2].
2 Real octonion division algebra
Consider the real octonion division algebra , that is, the usual real vector space , with canonical basis , equipped with the multiplication given by the relations
where δ _{ ij } is the Kronecker delta, ε _{ ijk } is a LeviCivita symbol, i.e., a completely antisymmetric tensor with a positive value +1 when ijk = 123, 145, 167, 246, 275, 374, 365 and e _{ 0 } is the identity. This element will be omitted whenever it is clear from the context.
Every element o ∈ can be written as where Re( o ) = o _{0} and are called the real part and the imaginary (or vector) part, respectively. The conjugate of o is defined as . The norm of o is defined by . The inverse of a nonzero octonion o is .
The multiplication of can be written in terms of the Euclidean inner product and the vector cross product in , hereinafter denoted by • and ×, respectively. Concretely, as in [3], we have
Following [4], we recall that are perpendicular if . In particular, if , then are perpendicular if . Moreover, are parallel if . In particular, if , then are parallel if .
The elements of the basis of can also be written as
The real octonion division algebra , of dimension 8, can be constructed from the real quaternion division algebra , of dimension 4, by the CayleyDickson doubling process where contains as a subalgebra. As a consequence, it is well known that any can be written as (1) where are of the form , with .
The real quaternion division algebra is algebraically isomorphic to the real matrix algebra of the matrices in (2), where ϕ(q) is a real matrix representation of a quaternion q.
Definition 1
Some important properties of the matrices in Definition 1 are recalled in Lemma 1.
Lemma 1
[1] Let and . Then

.

.

.

, if .

.
The real quaternion division algebra is algebraically antiisomorphic to the real matrix algebra of the matrices in (3), where τ(q) is another real matrix representation of a quaternion q.
Definition 2
[1] Let . Then (3) where K_{4} = diag(1, −1, −1, −1).
Some relevant properties of the matrices in Definition 2 are recalled in Lemma 2.
Lemma 2
[1] Let and . Then

.

τ(a + b) = τ(a) + τ(b), τ(ab) = τ(b)τ(a), τ(λa) = λτ(a), τ(1) = I _{4}.

.

, if .

.
Due to the nonassociativity, the octonion algebra cannot be isomorphic to the real matrix algebra with the usual multiplication. With the purpose of introducing a convenient matrix multiplication, we show another way of representing the octonions by a column matrix.
Definition 3
Let . The column , vectorial or ket representation of o is .
Based on the previous real matrix representations of a quaternion, Tian introduced the following pseudo real matrix representation of an octonion.
Definition 4
[1] Let , where . Then the 8 × 8 real matrix (4) is called the left matrix representation of a over , where K _{4} = diag(1, −1, −1, −1).
The meaning of the term left matrix representation comes from the following result.
Theorem 1
[1] Let . Then .
Tian [1] introduced also the right matrix representation of an octonion a over , which he denoted by . In this case, Tian proved that .
Even though there are such that , there are still some properties which hold. These are recalled in Theorem 2.
Theorem 2
[1] Let , . Then

.

ω( a + b ) = ω( a ) + ω( b ), ω(λ a ) = λω( a ), ω(1) = I _{8}.

.
3 Main results
In this section, the left matrix representation of an octonion over is considered. First of all, given an octonion, the eigenvalues of its left matrix representation are computed.
Proposition 1
Let . Then the eigenvalues of the real matrix ω( a ) are each with algebraic multiplicity 4.
Proof. Given an octonion a, it can always be uniquely represented as such that , and where . The characteristic polynomial of ω( a ) is where K _{8} is the orthogonal matrix diag(1, −1, −1, −1, 1, 1, 1, 1) = diag(K _{4}, I _{4}). Hence, and the result follows.
The set of eigenvalues of ω( ab ) is equal to the set of eigenvalues of ω( a )ω( b ) since the characteristic polynomials are equal as can easily be seen. However, if we add an extra octonion c the set of eigenvalues of ω( ab + c ) and ω( a )ω( b ) + ω( c ) may differ.
We now study the eigenvalues of the matrix ω( a )ω( b ) + ω( c ), given three octonions a , b , and c .
Remark 1
Let and . Notice that can be decomposed into two parts: a part parallel to , denoted by ; and a part perpendicular to , denoted by . The parallel part is the projection of onto , which is defined as The perpendicular part is given by .
Besides the projection of onto we will also consider the projection of over , i.e., the linear space generated by all linear combinations of and .
Remark 2
As and , then where and . Hence, it suffices to consider only the product since the remaining terms can be added to c .
The pure octonion can be decomposed in two parts, one in and the other perpendicular to it. In this case, we can write , where and . The parallel part is the projection of onto and is given by and the perpendicular part is naturally .
Proposition 2
Let such that , and the imaginary part of a and b are perpendicular. Then the eigenvalues of the real matrix ω( a )ω( b ) + ω( c ) are (5) where c _{∥} is the projection of c onto Span( a , b ) and , each with algebraic multiplicity 2.
Proof. Without loss of generality, we consider a = a i and b = b j . Hence,
By Lemmas 1 and 2, we have (6) Let , where . Then (7)
Taking into account (6) and (7), we obtain
The characteristic polynomial of ω( a )ω( b ) + ω( c ) is where K_{8} is the orthogonal matrix diag(1, −1, −1, −1, 1, 1, 1, 1) = diag(K _{4}, I _{4}). Hence, which results in and, since , gives where and . By Lemma 2, we have and the result follows.
The following corollary may be useful to improve the localization of eigenvalues of octonionic matrices and zeros of octonionic polynomials whenever such products occur.
Corollary 2.1
Let . Then (8) where ρ(•) stands for the spectral radius.
Proof. By Proposition 2, we obtain
Furthermore, the eigenvalues of ω( ab + c ) are all equal in modulus and satisfy
Without loss of generality, we can consider a = a i and b = b j . If . Hence, we arrive at and the result follows.
Example 3.1
To apply (5) , we have to take into account Remarks 1 and 2, and rewrite a , b and c as where , and are the imaginary parts of a , b and c , respectively.
Computing , the projection of onto , we obtain . Thus, the orthogonal part is equal to .
The projections of onto and are, respectively and . Hence, the projection of on the space of and is . This implies that for the orthogonal part we have .
Taking all together, we have where is real and . So (9) where , , and .
We are now in condition to apply Proposition 2, from which we obtain the eigenvalues of
The eigenvalues are and , while the eigenvalues of are .
As predicted by Corollary 2.1, , since and .
Acknowledgments
The authors are very thankful to the anonymous referee for his valuable suggestions towards the improvement of this paper.
R. Serôdio and P.D. Beites were supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portugal), project UID/MAT/00212/2013 of the Centro de Matemática e Aplicações da Universidade da Beira Interior (CMAUBI). P.D. Beites was also supported by the research project MTM201783506C22P (Spain).
References
 Tian Y (2000), Matrix representations of octonions and their applications. Adv Appl Clifford Algebras 10, 61–90. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Beites PD, Nicolás AP, Vitória J (2017), On skewsymmetric matrices related to the vector cross product in R^{7}. Electron J Linear Algebra 32, 138–150. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
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Cite this article as: Serôdio R, Beites P & Vitória J 2019. Eigenvalues of matrices related to the octonions. 4open, 2, 16.
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